We explain all you need to know about Pomeranian dogs, including all the cool facts about Pomeranians.
The Pomeranian ( also known as the Pom) originated from Pomerania (which is now Poland and Germany) and weighed almost 30 pounds. He was a great sheep herder at that time.
It is believed that the ancestors of the Pomeranian were the early wolf-Spitz breeds of dogs. As the tiniest member of the Spitz family, Pomeranians also have a shared ancestry with Keeshonds and Samoyeds and similar Arctic dog breeds.
In 1870 he became better known when the English Kennel Club recognized this Spitz dog. Queen Victoria fell in love with the Pom dog while visiting Florence, Italy and brought one back with her, boosting his popularity immensely.
The Pomeranian is a delightful little person. He may now come packaged in an extremely small parcel, however he has not forgotten his heritage and behaves as if he is an enormously large husky dog. A Pomeranian exhibits great intelligence and a vivacious spirit, is loyal, mischievous, affectionate and incredibly energetic. Making him a great companion dog as well as a competitive show dog.
The Pomeranian is a compact, short-backed, active toy dog. He has a soft, dense undercoat with a profuse harsh-textured outercoat. His signature is a heavily plumed tail that is set high and lies flat on his back. He is alert in character, exhibits intelligence in expression, is buoyant in deportment, and is inquisitive by nature.
Today’s Pomeranian is an extroverted, cocky, intelligent dog. He’s a great show dog and companion. The Pomeranian is commanding and animated as he gaits. He stands at 8 – 11 inches in height. The average weight of the Pomeranian is from 3 to 7 pounds, with the ideal weight for the show specimen being 4 to 6 pounds.
He is medium-boned and feels sturdy. The Pomeranian’s eyes are dark, bright, medium in size, and almond-shaped.
The coat is abundant from the neck and fore part of shoulders and chest, forming a frill which extends over the shoulders and chest. The head and leg coat is tightly packed and shorter in length than that of the body. The front legs and back thighs are well-feathered in coat. His double thick coat must be brushed regularly.
Important Pomeranian Facts
|Dog Breed Group||Toy group|
|Temperament||Extroverted, cocky, intelligent dog who makes a wonderful companion|
|Average Height||8 – 11 inches (18 – 24 cm) tall at the shoulder|
|Weight Range||3 to 7 pounds (1.36 to 3.175kgs)|
|Exercise requirements||Low; 20-30 minutes per day|
|AKC Breed Popularity||Ranks 23 of 197|
|Life Expectancy||12 to 16 years|
When it comes to color, Pomeranians outclass every other canine breed. They come in approximately 20 different colors, shades, combinations and patterns including: blue, blue and tan, black and tan, black, chocolate and tan, chocolate, red sable, red, orange sable, orange, cram sable, cream, brindle (a base of orange, red or gold and strong black cross stripes), sable (black-tipped hairs on brown, gray, gold, fawn or silver), and white. Sometimes white Pomeranians have patches of a different color and, if so, they’re called “parti-colored.”
An outgoing Pomeranian is vibrant and intelligent. Pomeranian behavior characteristics include the fact he enjoys being introduced to new people and is friendly to other four-legged animals. However, he’s inclined to believe he’s actually bigger than his toy dog Pomeranian breed. Never permit him to challenge any larger dogs because of his false belief that he’s as big or bigger than them.
Pomeranians are curious and highly alert, traits that help make them ideal watchdogs. They’ll alert you by always barking at anything not considered part of their normal life. It’s critical that they’re trained to obey a “cease barking” command, or he’ll yap incessantly.
Numerous elements affect the typical Pomeranian temperament and they include: degree of socialization, training and genes. If a Pom pup has a good temperament, he loves to play and is inquisitive about the world around him.
He loves approaching people and to be held and cuddled. Select an average puppy that loves sitting in your lap, and avoid puppies that sit in the corner or want to bully their littermates. Shyness and aggression are character traits a puppy won’t ever outgrow.
It’s vital that you meet at least one parent — it’s more common for the mother to be available — to double check that you’re comfortable with her temperament. If possible, meet siblings and other relatives as well. That will help paint you a picture of what your puppy will be like when he’s an adult. They should be easy to live with, quiet, friendly and calm.
As with all dogs, you need to ensure your Pomeranian gets plenty of socialization early in life. This means exposing him to varied sounds, sights, experiences and people. It all helps to transform him into a well-rounded adult.
Other things you can do to socialize your Pom pup include:
Inviting different visitors over frequently, taking him for walks in busy dog parks, walks around the neighborhood to meet other dogs, and enrolling him in a puppy kindergarten.
Pomeranians with Children and other Animals
Owing to the breed’s diminutive size and high energy levels, the Pomeranian is not recommended for families who have small children. Lots of breeders won’t sell puppies if a home has young children. Despite the Pomeranian thinking he’s a little tough guy, able to tackle challenges bigger than himself. However, because he’s so small, he can be dropped or stood on easily and be seriously injured.
Educate young children on how to get close to, and then touch, the Pom. Supervise all interactions so neither of them gets hurt or hurts the other by pulling tails, pulling and biting ears, or anything else.
Educate your children to never go near any puppy or dog while they’re eating, or attempt to take the dog’s food away. You must never leave a young child alone with a dog.
Pomeranians enjoy being in the company of other animals, particularly if they grow up together in the same household. Cats are fine but protect your Pom from any larger dogs because they’re not scared of such larger creatures, partly because they believe they’re bigger than their actual size.
Pomeranian Apartment Dog
They are ideal for companions for elderly people or people living in units and flats because they are loyal, extremely intelligent and don’t require much exercise. With the right training, he can be a great family dog because he loves to please. He needs lots of attention but not much exercise.
Pomeranians don’t need large space to play in. They’re active inside and handy for people living in apartments or those who don’t have a fenced back yard. Take them for a couple of short walks each day or play with them and they’ll be happy.
Poms are full of energy and enjoy long walks. However, they’re sensitive to the heat and are small so you may end up either carrying them, putting them in a backpack, or even a stroller for some of the journey. They love playing but get bored quickly. The trick is to have loads of toys and frequently rotate them so there’s always something new to keep them happy. Toys that have a challenge in them are especially enjoyable.
Trick training is an enjoyable activity for you both to enjoy together. Pomeranians love learning new tricks, as well as having all the attention focused on them. This type of training strengthens your bond, gives them mental stimulation and exercise all at the same time.
Because their attention span is short, ensure each session is fun and short too. When he does something right, always praise him, whether it’s with treats, praise or more play.
Because he’s small, he doesn’t need too much exercise. However, short walks or a run around the garden are necessary activities each day to keep him healthy and fit.
When it comes to feeding, you should give your Pom 1/4 – 1/2 a cup of good quality dry food, and divide it into two meals.
Important food note:
There are various factors that will govern how much an adult Pomeranian will eat.
They include: metabolism, age, size, build and level of activity. Dogs are unique, just like humans. The amount of food needed can vary from day to day and if your dog lives on the couch, he won’t need as much as if he ran around like an energetic bunny all day long. The higher quality food that you buy will affect the amount needed because it will provide more nourishment, so he won’t eat as much.
Pomeranian Grooming Requirements
One of a Pomeranian’s stand out attributes is his glorious, thick, double coat; the top coat is straight, long and shiny, but harsh when touched; and his undercoat is thick, soft, and the hair is very fluffy. The long hair on his chest and neck creates a frill that further enhances the appearance of this glorious animal.
His coat is yet another remarkable attribute of this breed. His plumed tail lies flat on his back, with the hair fanned out across his back. When puppies are born, their tails look nothing like this. It sometimes takes months for the tail to fully grow into this outstanding feature that sets him apart from other breeds.
Although a Pomeranian’s coat will not need as much care as some of the other coated dog breeds, it is still essential to groom him a minimum of 2 – 3 times each week.
This breed is a moderate hair shedder. Males usually only shed their undercoat once each year. Females that haven’t been spayed often will shed their undercoats each time they’re in season, whenever they have given birth, or any time they’re stressed. To keep dog hair off your furniture and clothing, you must comb and brush your Pomeranian a minimum of twice a week with a metal comb and a wire slicker brush.
This keeps his coat and skin healthy, helps to distribute the natural oils of the skin, and stops tangles and mats. Remember to comb and brush right down to the skin level so all shedding gets removed.
The best way is to begin brushing his head and after that, part the coat and brush forward so when you’re done, it falls back to where it should be. If you desire, you can occasionally trim him to keep him neat. This should be done around his rear, on his ears and face, and on his feet.
Wash him as regularly as you want, whether it’s daily or monthly, but make sure the dog conditioner and shampoo is mild. In between washes, if he begins to smell a bit “doggy,” sprinkle a little baby powder on his coat, let it work its magic for a few minutes, after which you need to brush it out.
Other forms of grooming include: nail care and dental hygiene. Pomeranians are susceptible to dental issues so you need to be mindful of this fact. You should brush his teeth weekly but it would be better if you can do it daily because you’ll keep them cleaner and spot trouble early.
If your dog doesn’t naturally wear his nails down, you need to regularly trim them. When he walks around inside and you can hear his nails, then they’re definitely too long. If his nails are trimmed short, it helps stop you from getting scratched when he jumps up on you because he’s excited to see you.
When he’s a puppy, you need to start getting him used to being touched, examined, brushed, etc. Dogs are sensitive about having their feet touched so do it gently but frequently.
Check inside his ears and mouth. Turn grooming into a pleasurable, positive experience, and use plenty of praise and treats so your Pom will be easy to handle when you and/or the vet need to carry out various examinations, while he’s a puppy and an adult.
During your grooming rituals, keep your eye out for rashes, sores, indicators of infection such as: inflammation, tenderness or redness on his skin, feet, ears, nose, mouth and eyes. His eyes should be clear, without any discharge or redness.
His ears should not smell, and shouldn’t have much gunk or wax in them. Doing a thorough exam every week will help you identify possible health troubles early and then they can be treated. Talk to your vet if you have any questions.
Pomeranian Dog Health Problems
All dog breeds can go through a range of health problems and some are more common in specific breeds, including cross-breeds.
Remember, even the most conscientious breeder may have problems, however, since they are screening for genetic problems, you have a better chance of having a healthy puppy.
Pomeranian Luxating Patella
Pomeranian luxating patellas (knees that slip out of place) are the most common problem in the Pomeranian breed. The knees are graded according to the OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals). Normal knees are, of course the most desirable, but Grades One and Two are more common and not unusual in toy breeds. Grades Three and Four may require surgery, sometimes early on in the dog’s life.
Be sure to check the knees of any prospective puppy. One with higher grades at a young age will probably be a candidate for surgery. OFA has forms to fill out on the grade of the patellas and both parents should have their results on file. Remember, only a “normal” result may appear in the database.
Hypothyroidism (low thyroid) is very common in the Pomeranian breed. Ask to see the results of the thyroid tests of the parents of the puppy you are considering. OFA has a registry for dogs who submit tests for thyroid.
Pomeranian Coat Loss Problems
There is a coat loss problem in Pomeranians called SHLS (Severe Hair Loss Syndrome). It is also known as Black Skin Disease and Pomeranian Alopecia X . Occurs mainly in males. They may have profuse puppy coats with no guard hairs, which does not shed. When the puppy coat sheds, the coat does not grow back. Another version of the same condition happens at a later age, with a normal appearing coat that slowly starts to thin, starting at the back of the thighs and buttocks and moving up the back. Ask to see the parents of the dog you are buying.
Pomeranian Collapsing Trachea
Collapsing trachea is a problem found in many Poms. If your pom makes a honking noise or sounds like he is coughing up a hairball, the problem may be his trachea. It can be diagnosed with a X-ray and usually medication is prescribed to reduce coughing. This can be a life-threatening problem, so do not ignore it.
Pomeranian Heart Issues
Heart problems can range from very slight to life threatening. Some are impossible to diagnose until a sudden death occurs. Ask your breeder if heart problems run in the lines he is working with.
Pomeranian Puppy Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia can occur in young Pomeranians. It is more common in the very small or very active puppies. Be sure that your breeder gives you complete instructions on how to determine if your puppy is starting to develop hypoglycemia. It is a problem that the puppy outgrows as they mature. Adult hypoglycemia is a serious metabolic disorder. Dogs who have this should not be bred.
Some Pomeranians have idiopathic epilepsy. Idiopathic means that we don’t know what causes it. Liver problems, kidney problems, head trauma and other reasons may cause seizures. Idiopathic epilepsy typically occurs between 3-7 years of age and is thought to be inherited.
Is a health issue known to occur occasionally in the Pomeranian. Perthes disease occurs during 4 to 11 months of age. Perthes disease is a problem with loss of blood supply to the hip joint, resulting in lameness and extreme pain for the animal concerned. Surgery will help.
Pomeranians have tiny teeth which require extensive care, including brushing by the owner and regular Vet dentals.
Pomeranian Eye Issues
Pomeranian canine entropion or inward rolling of the eyelid. This causes the eyelashes to rub on the surface of the eye. Pomeranians with entropion show discomfort by squinting and may be sensitive to sunlight. Surgery can easily correct Pomeranian canine entropion. Surgery is best left until the Pomeranian is over 12 months of age. With growth the problem may correct itself. If left untreated corneal ulceration and scarring may develop.
A Veterinarian who is trained to do CERF testing can check eyes for genetic problems. CERF (Canine Eye Registry Foundation) has a form and a database to check the parents of the puppy you are considering. To date. there have not been many eye problems found, but that may be because not many dogs have been tested. Ask to see the CERF results of the parents of the puppy.
Abnormal Descent of Testicles
Male Pomeranians are sometimes prone to abnormal descent of one or both testicles. Castration is routinely recommended for Pomeranians affected by this problem. Ignoring the problem can result in a higher risk of testicular cancer in the retained testicle. This defect is considered to be inherited.
Coccidiosis is a protozoan intestinal infection that can sometimes affect Pomeranians and can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration in puppies. Symptoms of these infections include rank smelling stools that may include mucous and blood. If you notice these symptoms, you should take your puppy to your family veterinarian for a fecal exam.
Life Expectancy of Pomeranians
When considering a dog, it is critical that you understand that it is a lifetime commitment. The general life expectancy of Pomeranians is 10 – 16 years.
Disclaimer: The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional veterinarian advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your veterinarian with any questions you may have regarding the medical condition of your dog. Never disregard professional advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on ANY website.
More Pomeranian Information is available on the Pomeranian Resource Website
Pomeranian Dog Breeders
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References and Further Reading:
 Denise Leo “The Pomeranian Handbook”.
The Pomeranian Handbook